Male Infertility: Five Reasons for Low Spermatozoa

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The amount of sperm that men ejaculate during puberty has decreased by 51% over the past 50 years. Male Infertility: Five Reasons for Low Spermatozoa

This is one of the key findings of a recent study published by the Hebrew University of Jerusalem in Israel and the Mount Sinai School of Medicine in the United States.

Researchers measured and found that in the 1970s, men had an average of 101 million reproductive cells per milliliter of semen. That number has recently dropped to 49 million.

In addition to quantity, statistics show that even as the quality of male sperm has decreased, the percentage of cells that are able to reach a female’s sperm has decreased significantly in recent decades.

Moacir Rafael Radaelli, a Brazilian urologist, said: “What we see most is the loss of sperm motility. If not, the ability to conceive is reduced.”

The increase in these numbers is a warning sign for health professionals.

“It’s a worrying thing because we see it increasing and we don’t know when it’s going to stop,” said Eduardo Miranda, head of the male reproductive health department at the American Urology Association.

In recent years, the rate of male infertility has increased. According to this study conducted in Israel and the United States, between 1970 and 1990 the amount of sperm decreased by 1.16% per year.

But since 2000, that decline has reached 2.64%. In other words, it doubles.

And it’s a global phenomenon: Scientists have seen a decline in fertility on all continents, although the numbers are higher in Europe, Africa, Central America, and Latin America.

But what is behind it? Experts suggest at least five reasons. The good news is that there is a way to combat it.

1. Obesity

Umubyibuho ukabije, ubunebwe bwo kudakoresha umubiri, n’indyo mbi ni bimwe mu bitera kugabanuka kwa spermatozoïdes
Obesity, lack of physical activity, and poor diet are some of the causes of low spermatozoa.

Too much weight causes serious and negative changes in male spermatozoa.

The increase in body fat stores, and the release of hormones that affect testosterone, are one of the most important for sperm production.

Miranda says being overweight causes what’s called oxidative stress, a process that causes many of the body’s cells to deteriorate.

“That’s why, an obese person shows more fat on the penis, which is bad for spermatozoa.”

The sperm cells, where these sperm are produced, need a daily temperature of between 1 and 2 °C for the body to function properly – that’s why we are located just outside the body and the skin that protects us is a little different. and that of other parts of the body.

What happens is that excess fat causes the ovaries to overheat and not work as normal.

The UN health department WHO estimates that 39% of men in the world are overweight and 11% are obese – figures that help explain the decline in fertility over the past 50 years.

2. Drugs

Alcohol, tobacco, shisha, marijuana, cocaine, and other drugs…Do you know what all these have in common? It affects the health of the sperm.

Miranda explains that “some of them immediately destroy the cells that produce sperm”.

And others do that directly. It destroys the hormones that allow the sperm cells to do their job properly.

An example often mentioned by experts is the large testosterone replacement pills, gels or injections that are often used by those who want to increase muscle mass and confidence on their bodies.

“It’s a market that has grown illogically and alarmingly in recent years,” said M. Radaelli.

This doctor says that when these hormones are replaced by these substances in an inappropriate manner, the body feels that it no longer needs to make hormones naturally.

At that time, the ovaries may stop working and the number of spermatozoa in the testicles will be zero, in what doctors call azoospermia.

3. Sexually transmitted diseases

Diseases such as gonorrhea and chlamydia, are caused by bacteria that can cause inflammation in the part known as the epididymis of the testicles.

The upper part of the uterus is responsible for storing spermatozoa.

The pressure on the site explains the danger in the life of the spermatozoa.

WHO estimates that in 2020 alone, 129 million new men and women will be infected with chlamydia and another 82 million new men will be infected with syphilis. That pattern has not changed or increased over the years.

Radaelli adds that the third disease on the list is called Human papillomavirus, commonly known as HPV, which causes cervical cancer in women. Only if left untreated does it have serious consequences.

“This is also known to have a negative effect on the production or DNA/DNA of spermatozoa,” he said.

4. Computer on your Thigh

Gukikira mudasobwa igendanwa amasaha menshi ku bibero ni akaga ku ntanga
Holding a laptop for hours on your Thigh is dangerous for your sperm

Do you remember the fact that tests should be kept at a daily temperature of between 1 and 2 °C for everyone else’s body?

So, a study published 10 years ago said that the habit of leaving a laptop on the lap is a problem for the production of sperm.

In fact, the battery (battery) of the machine heats up and can cause the “burning” of the spermatozoid.

Miranda says that any other activity related to heating that area is also dangerous for ovulation.

An example is spending a lot of time in a big bath (baignoire) with hot water, or many hours in a sauna.

Also in technology, this doctor mentions the possible effects of waves (waves) of technological devices, telephone waves, and waves of the wireless internet (WiFi).

“In research studies, conducted in laboratories, things like WiFi and other invisible waves affect spermatozoa,” he said.

“We just don’t always know for sure that the technology is harmful to those cells,” he says.

5. Toxicity

At the end of the list, experts return to the list of toxic substances known as ‘endocrine disruptors’.

The list includes air pollution, plastic waste, and pesticides.

In fact, the composition of these substances is similar to that of the hormones in our bodies. So when it reaches the body it goes to the production of hormones which can cause unwanted effects.

One of the recent research findings is that this positively affects a man’s reproductive health.

“We just don’t know the exact extent of this problem but a lot of research is being done to find out,” said M. Radaelli.

Urugero rwa spermatozoïdes zidafite akamaro rwariyongereye mu myaka ya vuba
The number of abnormal spermatozoa has increased in recent years.

Apart from environmental and behavioral factors as the cause of low spermatozoa, other negative factors play a role in the problem.

The first is the structure. It is estimated that between 10 and 30% of cases of difficulty in conceiving are due to problems with the man’s DNA.

The second is related to aging and the fact that now men are trying to have children more often in adulthood.

“We know for sure that fertility declines with age,” said the doctor. Although the reduction is not comparable to that of women, but as a man grows, there is a decrease in the hormones that are important for the production of spermatozoa.

If the number of spermatozoa has decreased by 51% in 50 years and the rate of this has increased in the last 20 years, isn’t the rate going down to zero?

However, if the pace continues at this rate, we will reach zero fertility by 2050.

But Miranda says this looks like the end won’t happen.

“It seems to be getting worse, but at some point, it will stop maybe with the help of technology,” he said.

What to do ?

For people who want to have children, the first step to increasing their chances is to make lifestyle changes, especially avoiding harmful activities.

An example of this is maintaining a healthy weight and losing excess weight through proper diet and regular exercise.

Avoiding excessive alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs is also a basic tip.

While having sex is important, when it is done without the intention of procreation it is even more important to use a condom to protect against diseases such as chlamydia and syphilis.

Young women are advised to get the HPV vaccine to protect against HPV and cervical cancer and to give them the chance to become pregnant.

If you’ve done everything you can to make lifestyle changes but still have trouble conceiving, the next step is to see a doctor.

According to national and international guidelines, the time to take specific measurements depends on the age of the woman.

“If under 35, the ‘couple’ tries to conceive for at least a year, has sex regularly, at least three times a week, and is monitored by doctors during fertility,” Miranda said.

But when a woman is over 35 years old, if she does not get pregnant for six months, that alone is a sign of infertility.

Also, from that age on, a woman’s ability to ovulate rapidly declines – so the 12-month wait for a solution can be a long and expensive waste of time, doctors say.

“Evaluation should be done on the ‘couple’ to find the possible causes and provide the appropriate treatment,” said Radaelli.

When the problem is with a man, experts prescribe him medicine that generally consists of nutrients (vitamins) to protect and help fertility.

It may also be necessary to treat the condition of the hormone using a supplement.

“It’s also possible to correct some of the underlying medical conditions with medication or surgery,” says Miranda.

“It’s like treating bacterial infections with antibiotics or correcting genital problems with surgery,” he adds.

The last method is where the ‘couple’ can use assisted conception, such as ‘in vitro fertilization’.



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